United States presidential election of 1860, American presidential election held on November 6, 1860, in which Republican Abraham Lincoln defeated Southern Democrat John C. Breckinridge, Democrat Stephen A. Douglas, and Constitutional Union candidate John Bell. His support was the most widespread geographically; he finished second behind Lincoln in the popular vote with 29.52%, but last in the Electoral College. [46], Bertram Wyatt-Brown argues that secessionists desired independence as necessary for their honor. Nearly all "conditional Unionists" joined the secessionists. He took no action against the secessionists in the seven "Confederate" states but also declared that secession had no legal validity and refused to surrender federal property in those states. However, the "conditional Unionists" also hoped that when faced with secession, Northerners would stifle anti-slavery rhetoric and accept pro-slavery rules for the territories. They will be found everywhere, with strychnine to put in our wells. Unlike every preceding president-elect, Lincoln did not carry even one slave state. Flag banner promoting Abraham Lincoln for the presidency in 1860. After two ballots - the 59th ballot overall - the remaining Democrats nominated Stephen A. Douglas from Illinois for president. Disaffected Democrats, largely Southerners, then nominated Breckinridge, with Sen. Joseph Lane of Oregon as his running mate. Breckinridge received very little support in the free states, showing some strength only in California, Oregon, Pennsylvania and Connecticut. He set about ensuring that he was the second choice of most delegates, realizing that the first round of voting at the convention was unlikely to produce a clear winner. In the four slave states that did not secede (Missouri, Kentucky, Maryland, and Delaware), Lincoln came in fourth in every state except Delaware (where he finished third). Houston, never enthusiastic about running for the Presidency, soon became convinced that he had no chance of winning and that his candidacy would only make it easier for the Republican candidate to win. The 1860 presidential election conventions were unusually tumultuous, due in particular to a split in the Democratic Party that led to rival conventions. The remaining party was also called the Radical Abolitionists. Lincoln was the second President-elect to poll no votes in any state which had a popular vote (the first was John Quincy Adams, who polled no ballots in the popular votes of two states in the election of 1824, although that was a unique election in which there were four major candidates, none of whom distributed ballots in every state). Lincoln then called for troops to put down rebellion, which wiped out the possibility that the crisis could be resolved by compromise. All three states had been carried by Buchanan in 1856. The second round eliminated most of the minor contenders, with votes switching to Seward or mostly to Lincoln. Source: Data from Walter Dean Burnham, Presidential ballots, 1836–1892 (Johns Hopkins University Press, 1955) pp 247–57. The first 1860 Democratic National Convention adjourned in Charleston, South Carolina, without agreeing on a nominee, but a second convention in Baltimore, Maryland, nominated Senator Stephen A. Douglas of Illinois for president. As a supporter of President Abraham Lincoln, ... Seymour had vetoed the initial bill to establish mail-in voting and would go on to run against Ulysses … If the President (and, by extension, the appointed federal officials in the South, such as district attorneys, marshals, postmasters, and judges) opposed slavery, it might collapse. Eventually, the state party worked out an agreement: if either candidate could win the national election with Pennsylvania's electoral vote, then all her electoral votes would go to that candidate. [22] These three Deep South states were all among the four Southern states with the lowest white populations; together, they held only nine percent of Southern whites.[23]. Another bloc of Southerners resented Northern criticism of slavery and restrictions on slavery but opposed secession as dangerous and unnecessary. Known almost exclusively by his got-up nickname "The Railsplitter," Lincoln had won the 1860 election in November with 39.8 percent of the popular vote. It excludes South Carolina from the calculation, because in 1860 it chose presidential electors in the state legislature, without a popular vote. At most, a single opponent nationwide would have deprived Lincoln of only California, Oregon, and four New Jersey electors,[35] whose combined total of eleven electoral votes would have made no difference to the result since every other state won by the Republicans was won by a clear majority of the vote: in this scenario, Lincoln would have received 169 electoral votes, 17 more than the 152 required to win. Porter, Kirk H. and Donald Bruce Johnson, eds. Altogether, 212 electoral votes were counted in Congress for Lincoln – more than enough to win the presidency even if all of the states in rebellion had … Southern Democrat John C. Breckinridge garnered 18 percent of the vote and 72 electoral votes, winning most Southern states plus Delaware and Maryland. Delivered in Seward's home state, and attended by Greely, Lincoln used the speech to show that the Republican party was a party of moderates, not crazed fanatics as the South and Democrats claimed. On the third ballot on May 18, Lincoln secured the nomination overwhelmingly. By Lincoln’s inauguration in March, seven Southern states had seceded. [9][10], Senator Robert M. T. Hunter from Virginia, Former Senator Daniel S. Dickinson from New York. His “main object,” he had written, was to “hedge against divisions in the Republican ranks,” and he counseled party workers to “say nothing on points where it is probable we shall disagree.” With Republicans united, and with division within the Democratic Party and surrounding Bell’s candidacy, the primary fear that Republicans had was that some disunity might appear and hamper their chances. [14] They met in the Eastside District Courthouse of Baltimore and nominated John Bell from Tennessee for president over Governor Sam Houston of Texas on the second ballot. [39] Thus, except for running mate Everett's home state of Massachusetts, and California, Bell received even less support in the free states than did Breckinridge, and consequently came in last in the national popular vote, at 12.62%. The Democratic Party split in two. ; THE HOUSTON MASS MEETING. In order to receive any votes, a candidate (or his party) had to have ballots printed and organize a group of electors pledged to that candidate. It was held on November 6, 1860. Sen. John Bell of Tennessee was the candidate of the new Constitutional Union Party, the political home for former Whigs and other moderates who rallied to support the Union and the Constitution without regard to slavery. 4 of the electors pledged to Lincoln were elected since the Breckinridge and Bell electors finished behind all other candidates. It was that group that prevented immediate secession in Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Arkansas when Between 1789 and 1860, Southerners had been president for two-thirds of the era, and had held the offices of Speaker of the House and President pro tem of the Senate during much of that time. Answer: 1 question Who ran for president as a republican in 1860? Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. This ticket was usually referred to as the Straight Douglas ticket. Following on the heels of the Dred Scott decision of 1857, in which the U.S. Supreme Court voided the Missouri Compromise (1820), thus making slavery legal in all U.S. territories, the election of 1860 was sure to further expose sectional differences between those, especially (but not solely) in the North, who wanted to abolish slavery and those who sought to protect the institution. Instead, presidential ballots were printed and distributed by agents of the candidates and their parties, who organized slates of would-be electors publicly pledged to vote for a particular candidate. [19], The People's Party was a loose association of the supporters of Governor Samuel Houston. “The Undecided Political Prize Fight,” a lithograph depicting the presidential campaign of 1860 and featuring Abraham Lincoln and Stephen A. Douglas. He took nine of the eleven states that eventually joined, plus the border slave states of Delaware and Maryland, losing only Virginia and Tennessee. Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? Breckinridge was the last sitting vice president nominated for president until Richard Nixon in 1960. [29][30], Since Andrew Jackson had won re-election in 1832, all six subsequent presidents had only won one-term, while the last four of those had won with a popular vote under 51 percent.[31]. Voters brought the ballot to the polling station and dropped it publicly into the election box. While some considered Horatio Seymour a compromise candidate for the National Democratic nomination at the reconvening convention in Baltimore, Seymour wrote a letter to the editor of his local newspaper declaring unreservedly that he was not a candidate for either spot on the ticket. "[16], Former Representative Gerrit Smith from New York. This absurdly low total was partly due to the fact that four candidates were on the ballot, but it remains the poorest showing by any winning presidential candidate in American history. Question: Who ran for president as a Republican in 1860? For the results of the subsequent election, see United States presidential election of 1864. Secessionists threw their support behind Breckinridge in an attempt either to force the anti-Republican candidates to coordinate their electoral votes or throw the election into the House of Representatives, where the selection of the president would be made by the representatives elected in 1858, before the Republican majorities in both House and Senate achieved in 1860 were seated in the new 37th Congress. "[6], The party platform[7] promised not to interfere with slavery in the states, but opposed slavery in the territories. Moreover, since voters did not choose the president directly, but rather presidential electors, the only way for a voter to meaningfully support a particular candidate for president was cast a ballot for citizens of his state who would have pledged to vote for the candidate in the Electoral College. Lincoln did not win any votes in any state that would form the Confederacy, with the exception of Virginia, where he garnered only 1 percent of the total vote (Douglas won slightly less than 10 percent). In April the American Civil War began. That two candidates were from Illinois showed the importance of the West in the election.[3]. Former Representative Abraham Lincolnfrom Illinois, Former Representative Edward Bates from Missouri, Former Senator William L. Dayton from New Jersey, The Republican National Convention met in mid-May 1860, after the Democrats had been forced to adjourn their convention in Charleston. Bell and Douglas both tried to tack towards a moderate position. The Fusion slate consisted of 3 electors pledged to Douglas, and 2 each to Breckinridge and Bell. (He also reiterated his opposition to slavery anywhere in the territories.) There was no mention of Mormonism (which had been condemned in the Party's 1856 platform), the Fugitive Slave Act, personal liberty laws, or the Dred Scott decision. Four men ran for president in 1860: Stephen Douglas, Abraham Lincoln, John Bell, and John Breckinridge. He had also opposed tariffs demanded by Pennsylvania, and even had opposition from his own delegation from Ohio. Who ran for presidential as a republican in 1860 A. stephen Douglas B. Abraham Lincoln C. jefferson Davis D. john C. Breckinridge A. Stephen Douglas B. Abraham Lincoln C. Jefferson Davis D. John C. Breckinridge The Wide Awakes young Republican men's organization massively expanded registered voter lists, and although Lincoln was not even on the ballot in most Southern states, population increases in the free states had far exceeded those seen in the slave states for many years before the election of 1860, hence free states dominated in the Electoral College.[33]. But what he had in policy he lacked in charisma and political acumen. [3], Into this mix came Lincoln. Since 1860, and excluding unreconstructed Southern states prior to 1872, there have been two occasions where a Republican presidential candidate failed to poll votes in every state[nb 4], while national Democratic candidates have failed to appear on all state ballots in three elections since the introduction of the secret ballot, though in all three, the Democratic candidate nonetheless won the presidency,[nb 5], but none of them were in as many states as Lincoln in 1860. Lincoln's best results, by far, were in the four counties that comprised the state's northern panhandle, a region which had long felt alienated from Richmond, was economically and culturally linked to its neighbors Ohio and Pennsylvania and would become the key driver in the successful effort to form a separate state. In the four states of New York, Rhode Island, Pennsylvania and New Jersey where anti-Lincoln votes were combined into fusion tickets, Lincoln still won three and split New Jersey:[36] despite this, a shift of 25,000 votes to the fusion ticket in New York would have left Lincoln with 145 electoral votes - seven votes short of winning the Electoral College - and forced a contingent election in the House of Representatives. In late … "Lincoln for President: an unlikely candidate, an audacious strategy, and the victory no one saw coming" (2009) Ch. There were no ballots distributed for Lincoln in ten of the Southern states: Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Texas. A group of former Whigs and Know Nothings formed the Constitutional Union Party, which sought to avoid secession by pushing aside the issue of slavery. Bell carried three slave states (Tennessee, Kentucky, and Virginia) and lost Maryland by only 722 votes. The election was held on Tuesday, November 6, 1860, and was noteworthy for the exaggerated sectionalism and voter enthusiasm in a country that was soon to dissolve into civil war. William H. Seward, Salmon P. Chase and Abraham Lincoln of Illinois are the leading contenders from a field of 12 candidates. (a) The popular vote figures exclude South Carolina where the Electors were chosen by the state legislature rather than by popular vote. Within the fifteen slave states, Lincoln won only two counties out of 996, Missouri's St. Louis and Gasconade Counties. Participation in Elections for President and U.S. Lincoln's main opponent in the North was Douglas, who finished second in several states but won only the slave state of Missouri and three electors from the free state of New Jersey. When the Democrats reconvened in Baltimore, they rejoined (except South Carolina and Florida, who had stayed in Richmond). 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